A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. Usage of the term republic is inconsistent; however, at its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a state where sovereignty rests with the people or their representatives, rather than with a monarch or emperor; a country with no monarchy".

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. As in the United States, most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.


Federal StateOfficial Name and StyleSubdivisionsHead of state
Argentina Republic of Argentina Provinces President
Austria Republic of Austria States President
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Entities, Cantons and one federal District Collective Presidency
Brazil Federative Republic of Brazil States President
Comoros Union of the Comoros Autonomous islands President
Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Regions President
Germany Federal Republic of Germany States President
India Republic of India States President
Iraq Republic of Iraq Provinces President
Mexico United Mexican States States and one federal district President
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia States President
Nepal Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Development Regions President
Nigeria Federal Republic of Nigeria States President
Pakistan Islamic Republic of Pakistan Provinces President
Russia Russian Federation Federal subjects President
Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia States President
South Sudan Republic of South Sudan States President
Sudan Republic of the Sudan States President
Switzerland Swiss Confederation Cantons Federal Council
United States United States of America States President
Venezuela Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela States President
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